Prof. Kim is teaching urban economics and urban solutions in the University of Seoul. Previously he had been working at Seoul city government for 30 years, retired as vice mayor and was also president of Seoul Institute, think-tank of urban solutions for Seoul. During tenure at Seoul Metropolitan Government, he successfully completed many initiatives – such as mass transit reform to air pollution, waste and energy independence in urban areas, and the Digital Media City project – that transformed Seoul to a global city. Prof. Kim believes attaining sustainability truly depends on how to manage urban congestion and external effects that cause many urban challenges. He emphasizes importance of participation and education in finding urban solutions.